Centennial Photo Display: 1940’s, Part II

Alethea Drexler

archives assistant

Opening day of Baylor College of Hermann Hospital’s Corbin and Wilhelmina Robinson Pavilion, 1949.  This addition doubled the number of beds available at Hermann [McGovern Historical Collections P-882].

The new building, with the Hermann Professional Building in the distance to the left.

IC091 Houston_36 Hermann 1949 800dpi JPG

The autoclave room.  P-892 Hermann 1949 autoclave1 1500

The cafeteria.  (Industrial kitchens have changed very little.  This could easily be the serving line in the dining hall in which I worked as a college student, fifty years later.)

P-892 Hermann 1949 cafeteria2 1500

Cafeteria kitchen with vegetable cookers.P-892 Hermann 1949 cafeteria3 vegetable cookers 1500Sheet pressers and folding machine in the hospital laundry.

P-892 Hermann 1949 laundry1 1500Hugh Roy Cullen, Mrs. Cullen, and friends:

P-892 Hermann 1949 opening3 1500* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

The construction of Baylor’s Cullen Building, 1946-1947:

P-882-6 600dpi JPGP-882-5 600dpi JPGP-882-2 600dpi JPGP-882-4 600dpi JPGP-882-1 600dpi JPGP-882-3 600dpi JPGIC 91 box 2 Houston_20 Baylor

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Centennial Photo Display: 1940’s, Part I

Alethea Drexler

archives assistant

MS002S03b01 Houston Press 1947 Better Life 600dpi crop letterhead JPGThe 1940’s were big years for the Texas Medical Center.  To begin with, there now was a Medical Center: The Texas Medical Center was planned in the early 1940’s by the trustees of the M.D. Anderson Foundation, to be located on land purchased from the city, next to Hermann Hospital and Hermann Park [IC002 Texas Medical Center].

The dedicatory celebration was held on February 28, 1946, at Houston’s luxurious Rice Hotel.

MS002S03b01 TMC dinner 1946 01 cover 600dpi JPGThose in attendance were served fresh fruit dressed with sherry, celery hearts and olives, squab on toast with butter sauce, rissole potatoes and baby lima beans, salad, rolls, and chocolate meringue glace.

Medical Center founding father Ernst Bertner, M.D., is on the left:

1946-TMC-dedication-dinner-cThe map in the dinner program showed the handful of buildings that were in existence or under construction alongside ambitious plans for future growth [MS002 Ernst Bertner, M.D., S.III b.1 f.1]:

MS002S03b01 TMC dinner 1946 map 03 merged 600dpi 2500 JPGThe buildings that are shown in black are Palmer Memorial Church and the James Autry House on the far right, Hermann Hospital in the middle, the Rice University gymnasium at top, and Baylor College of Medicine, which was under construction, at left (in the middle of the map).  The Autry house, rectory for the church, operated a cafeteria that served Medical Center employees and students during the 1940’s and 1950’s [“The Cornerstone”, Rice Historical Society, Vol. 13, No. 1 Winter 2008].

Baylor University College of Medicine relocated from Waco to Houston in 1943  and was housed in a former Sears warehouse until the Cullen Building was completed in 1947.  It separated from Baylor University in 1969.  The University of Texas Hospital for Cancer Research was founded 1941, now UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center) had been established a few years earlier [IC002 Texas Medical Center].

MS002S03b01 UTMDACC 1944 01 JPGBy 1948, the dedicatory map was becoming reality.  This 1948 aerial shows the completed Baylor College of Medicine, Hermann Hospital’s new building and the Hermann Professional Building under construction, and the oval drive that would eventually encircle the Library building [IC002 Texas Medical Center]:

1948-TMC-Aerial library-lot_bates-bertnerArchitect Karl Kamrath’s concept for a Streamline building [MS071 S.4, F.6]:

1940-MS071-S4-F6-Kamrath-TMC-conceptCivil engineer Herbert A. Kipp was president of the River Oaks Corporation and was responsible for the layouts of the subdivisions in River Oaks, Glenwood Cemetery, Hermann Park, and the Texas Medical Center. The Corporation sent him on a research tour of other medical centers in the fall of 1944 in preparation for his work on the Medical Center. The colorful originals of some of his travel ephemera are held by the TMC Library’s McGovern Historical Collections. [IC002 Texas Medical Center, Series I, box 25].

An early admonishment to keep an eye on your luggage and keep your carry-ons to a minimum:

NYNHN railroad 2 300dpi-1500The Office of Defense Transportation oversaw railroads from 1941 through 1945 in an effort to ensure that transport was adequate both for civilians and for the war effort [The Presidency Project].

Missouri Pacific Railway envelope with a “V for Victory” theme.  :

Mo-Pac 1 300dpi-1500Hotel rates have changed a little in the past seventy years.

Atlanta, Georgia’s, Winecoff Hotel, featured at the bottom of the left-hand column, would be the site of the deadliest hotel fire in United States history in 1946 [Winecoff Hotel Documentary]:

Hotel Sir Walter Raleigh 1 300dpi-1500American Airlines ticket envelope.  The plane resembles a Douglas DC-3:

American Airlines 1 300dpi-1500A little more about Houston’s medical community during World War II:

Nursing as a profession had suffered a blow during the Great Depression, and many nurses became unemployed or had to scrape by on reduced hours and wages [“Nursing During the Great Depression“, Scrubs, August 27, 2012].  The Second World War created both renewed need and new opportunities for nurses.

Lois and Barbara Burnett, Hermann Hospital School of Nursing students, in 1940.

IC086 P-box02 F-1 Burnett 600dpi JPGInterns and nursing students at Hermann Hospital, 1943.  The girl at far right is wearing a one-piece playsuit, which probably had a skirt she could button over the shorts for street wear [Institutional Collection 086 Hermann Hospital Archives, P-box 02, folder 1].

IC086 P-box02 F-1 interns nursing students 1940s 600dpi JPGHermann’s pediatrics department, Christmas 1945:

IC086 P-box02 F-1 HH pediatrics christmas 1941i jpgLydia Moglia, Hermann Hospital School of Nursing class of 1932, in her Army Nurse Corps uniform (and epic victory rolls), signed “I haven’t lost the twinkle in my eye, October 1945″ [Institutional Collection 086 Hermann Hospital Archives, P-box 02, folder 1].

IC086 P-box02 F-1 Lydia Moglin HHSN1932 1945 600dpi JPGMoglia grew up on a ranch in Bruni, Texas, a tiny town near Laredo. She served in the Army Nurse Corps in Europe from 1942 to 1945, in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater in 1945 and 1946, and again during the Korean War from 1950 to 1954, in between working in hospitals in Houston, Laredo, and Corpus Christi [Ancestry.com; Findagrave.com].

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Centennial Photo Display: 1930’s

Alethea Drexler
archives assistant

Pendleton & Arto, Inc. medical supplies, January 1930

Houston’s Medical Arts Building (1926-1980’s) housed physicians’ and dentists’ offices, and related businesses such as this medical supplier.

1930-01jan-1-detail“Vivian Maddox, medical records librarian, and hospital ‘sweetheart’.” (undated, circa 1938)
IC 086 Hermann Hospital archives P-box 2 folder 6

Hermann Hospital apparently kept a pair of pet burros in the yard behind the hospital. The screened porches on the back of the nurses’ dormitory are in the background.

IC086 P-box2 F6 Vivian Maddox med rec lib and burro 600dpi JPG

1936 Hermann Hospital School of Nursing graduating class
IC 086 Hermann Hospital archives

1936 HermannSchNursing 600dpi JPG

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

The following pictures are from a sizable collection of images of Memorial Hospital, from the 1930’s and early 1940’s.  Most of the information about them comes from notations included with the photographs.

Memorial Hospital from the air, circa 1928-1938
McGovern Historical Collections P-467

Memorial as it appeared through most of the 1930’s. The building had been expanded several times already in the 1910’s and 1920’s, and would be enlarged again in the early 1940’s. [1]

The large light-colored building in the upper left is the Phenix Dairy, established in 1914 and once a major distributor in the South. This area is near the Julia Ideson building of the Houston Public Library, but is otherwise all skyscrapers now.
[1] Memorial Healthcare System, Handbook of Texas online.

P-467 Memorial 1928-1938 600dpi JPG

Memorial Hospital from the air, circa 1940
McGovern Historical Collections P-466

Note how much the area has changed:

The big Victorian house in the lower left is gone, replaced by a Mission-style building and Carl McMillian’s Ford dealership. There is a new gas station across the street.

The Neoclassical building and Queen Anne house on the block to the left have been replaced by a modern office building, and there are two pharmacies, the L&L and the Continental, within a block of the hospital.

P-466 Memorial 1940 aerial 600dpi JPG

Christmas Eve at the Memorial Hospital children’s home, 1937
McGovern Historical Collections image P-487

The nurse at left, sitting on the gurney, was also an attendant in the baby respirator demonstration.

The “little white cottage” was the former nurses’ dormitory and was located behind the main hospital building, which is visible in the background.

1937-p-487 Memorial Hospital Christmas Eve 1937

1936 Oldsmobile ambulance, Memorial Hospital
IC 086 Hermann Hospital archives P-box 2 folder 8

Until the 1950’s, civilian ambulances were used primarily to transport patients, not to treat them en route, so car-type models similar to hearses (many cars served as both) were standard. The taller, van- or truck-based ambulance that could carry more equipment and allowed more room for emergency personnel to work replaced the sedan-delivery in the 1970’s. [2]
[2] EMT Resources.
[3] Fire History.

1936 IC086 Folder 8 Memorial Hospital Oldsmobile ambulance 600dpi edit JPG

Flash board, 1930’s
McGovern Historical Collections P-549

Memorial Hospital “staff flash board, for coming in and out”. Mr. and Mrs. Jolly’s indicators are at the upper left.

P-549 Memorial call board 600dpi JPG

Lillie Jolly and nursing supervisors, 1936
McGovern Historical Collections P-439

Lillian “Lillie” Wilson Jolly was a graduate of the Kentucky School of Medicine School of Nursing and arrived in Houston in the first decade of the twentieth century. She became Memorial Hospital’s—then Baptist Sanitarium—Superintendent of Nurses in 1912 and spent the next 35 years building the school of nursing into a first-class establishment. The school was renamed for her in 1945. [4]

Thelma Parry, seated at left, appears in both the baby respirator and children’s home pictures.
[4] Ted Francis and Carole McFarland, The Memorial Hospital System: The first seventy-five years, Larksdale, Houston, 1982. Page 63-64.

P-439 Lillie Jolly and nurses 1936 600dpi JPG

Nursing station, 1930’s

A hallway and small nursing station in Memorial Hospital’s maternity ward.

Nursing Station II 300dpi

Maternity ward nurses, 1930’s
McGovern Historical Collections P-520

A posed photograph but a nice one, complete with a newly-minted Houstonian.

1930s P-520 memorial Nurses 1930s 600dpi JPG

Maternity ward room, 1936
McGovern Historical Collections P-439

Newly-furnished, home-like, room in Memorial’s maternity ward.

P-451 Memorial maternity room 1936 600dpi JPG

Baby respirator, Memorial Hospital.
McGovern Historical Collections image P-546

“1932. This infant respirator has already saved the lives of a dozen newborn babies. It is the only machine of its kind in the South. Called the Iron Lung because it compels breathing, preventing babies from being asphyxiated. Another friend donated a large Iron Lung for children and adults after seeing this machine.”

This type of iron lung is called a Drinker respirator after one of its developers. Iron lungs work by alternating negative and positive pressure within their sealed body chambers—the negative pressure creates a vacuum around the patient that expands the chest cavity, compelling inhalation, and then a cycle of positive pressure compels exhalation. Negative-pressure ventilators of this type only came into use in the late 1920’s, so the acquisition of this in 1931 was quite a coup. At the time, it was one of only 36 in all of the United States and Canada. Hospital administrators publicized the new baby respirator to spur fundraising for an adult-sized one.

The donor, J.W. Neal, was a Maxwell House Coffee distributor, banker, and philanthropist. His papers are held by the Houston Metropolitan Research Center. [5]

[5] Ted Francis and Carole McFarland, The Memorial Hospital System: The first seventy-five years, Larksdale, Houston, 1982. Page 48.
[6] National Museum of American History online.

1932-P546-memorial-baby-respirator edit

Iron lung, Memorial Hospital, 1937
McGovern Historical Collections P-547

This is an Emerson (John Haven Emerson, 1906-1991) iron lung, an improvement on the Drinker design. It seems to have been Memorial’s second adult-sized iron lung; the first one was a Drinker model donated in 1931 shortly after the gift of the baby respirator. The slide-out bed and portals in the side that allowed nurses to attend to patients without removing them from the lung were Emerson innovations.

Iron lungs were expensive—this one would have cost around a thousand dollars, and the earlier Drinker model almost twice that—and still relatively rare in the 1930’s. Note that this one was also funded through public donations. [6]
[6] National Museum of American History online.

1937-P547-memorial-iron-lung-a 1937-P547-memorial-iron-lung-b

Hydrotherapy bath, 1937
McGovern Historical Collections P-243

Public donations also purchased this Hubbard tank. The tank’s shape, with its narrow “waist”, allowed attendants to work with the patient without removing him or her from the bath. The water in this was likely heated and agitators provided a gentle “massage”. This is probably being used to treat a joint disorder such as juvenile arthritis. [7]

The man at the far right appears to be Robert Jolly, superintendent of Memorial Hospital and husband of Lillie Jolly of nursing fame. [10]
[7] Free Dictionary online.
[8] Merriam-Webster online.
[9] WebMD.
[10] Ted Francis and Carole McFarland, The Memorial Hospital System: The first seventy-five years, Larksdale, Houston, 1982. Page 63-64.

P-243 Memorial hydrotheraphy bath 1937 600dpit JPG

“Fever cabinet”, 1930’s
McGovern Historical Collections P-548

This apparatus is a “fever cabinet”, used to raise a patient’s body temperature for therapeutic purposes. Induced fevers were used to treat several conditions, including some infections and forms of arthritis. A related picture shows this machine being used on a child, so it, along with the Hubbard tank, may have been part of an effort to treat a childhood joint ailment by increasing circulation.[11]
[11] Merriam-Webster online
[12] Wikipedia – Pyrotherapy

P-548 Memorial fever cabinet 1930s 600dpi JPG edit

Tissue Laboratory, 1930’s
McGovern Historical Collections P-550

Memorial’s tissue laboratory. The white appliance in the left foreground is a centrifuge and the cabinets to the left of the “tissue room” door may be incubators.

P-550 Memorial tissue lab 1930s 600dpi JPG edit

Radiology department, 1930’s
McGovern Historical Collections P-564a and P-564b

Memorial Hospital’s x-ray equipment.

P-564a Memorial radiology 1930s 600dpi JPG P-564b Memorial radiology 1930s 600dpi jpg

Radiology department, 1930’s
McGovern Historical Collections P-551b

Radiograph viewer in Memorial Hospital’s radiology department. The images in the upper row are of a kidney and ureters, apparently enhanced by an intravenously-administered iodine contrast medium, which would have been a new concept in the 1930’s. The lower row may be a barium series of the gastrointestinal tract. The use of barium sulfate contrast medium was introduced in 1904. [13]

Radiology was often referred to as “roentgenology” until the mid-twentieth century, for x-ray pioneer Wilhelm Röntgen.
[13] Norman Williams, Christopher Bulstroned, and P. Ronan O’Connell, eds., Bailey and Love’s Short Practice of Surgery, 26th ed., CRC Press, 2013, page 1274.
[14] British Society for the History of Radiology online.

P-551b Memorial x-ray viewing box 1930s 600dpi JPG

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Metadata Team in Japan

By Philip Montgomery
Head of the McGovern Historical Center

TMCL archivists and COO in Tokyo

Gakushuin University, Tokyo. January 28, 2015. After a full day of talking about metadata, we stumbled outside to a cold dark day. We were hungry, but jubilant after crawling over some hurdles about naming conventions and metadata schemes. Enough is enough. From left to right, Yo Hashimoto, Philip Montgomery, Sandra Yates, Izumi Hirano, Professor Irisawa, Dr. Kaori Maekawa, Owen Ellard.

In the last week of January, Owen Ellard, the Chief Operating Officer of the TMC Library, Sandra Yates, the archivist and special collections librarian, and I traveled to Gakushuin University in Tokyo as guests of the university as part of an ongoing project to digitize the papers of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. The trip was funded through a generous grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Professor Masahito Ando is the principle investigator for the grant and served as our host.

In this photo, we had just emerged from a conference room where we spent most of the day discussing metadata and working out details for our digital pilot project. Sandra and I have been working with this team of Gakushuin archival graduate students for more than a year, which included several predawn Skype meetings. Working in person with this team was great fun. When this photo was taken I was a bit dazed and hungry enough to be verging on cranky. Then we headed off to an unforgettable night of great food and conversation.

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Centennial: Photo Display, Part II

Grand Central Railroad Station, circa 1900-1915 [1] – 431 Franklin Street (near I-45 and Washington Avenue). Built in 1887, replaced in the 1934 by the Art Deco station that is now incorporated into Minute Maid Park, and demolished in 1960[3].

Central DepotFor many years, Houston advertised itself as “The City Where 17 Railroads Meet the Sea” to emphasize that it was a modern, technologically progressive city, capable of handling the bounty of crops the state produced. The locomotive was included on the city seal when it was adopted in February, 1840. The city fathers were optimistic: Houston wouldn’t have an operational rail line until 1853. The Buffalo Bayou, Brazos, and Colorado Railroad was the first railroad in the state and only the second west of the Mississippi. It was also the earliest branch of today’s Southern Pacific[4].

Baptist Sanitarium, circa 1917: Resurrecting another blog post (October 1, 2010) brings us back to Baptist Sanitarium, before it became Memorial Hospital and then half of Memorial Hermann.  An anonymous nursing student[5] kept a photo album in the few years leading up to World War I.  The hospital in those days was on an unpaved street, and on a streetcar line.

Baptist 1917Young men and cars, circa 1917: The back of the album has pictures that seem to be of friends, family, and travel destinations, and finally of Fort Sam Houston during the War.  One of the informal pictures is of two young men and their cars.  The car on the left is an early 1910’s Ford[6]:

CarsThe second car presented something of a challenge.  The quality of the original photo isn’t great and a lot of the detail was blotted out by intense lighting, awkward photo exposure, and age.  The shape of the grille was extremely common in the early- to mid-1910’s and is of little help, but the high-set headlights, tall radiator cap ornament, and metal “apron” below the grille itself are unusual.

Car IIA lot of Googling and an email to a car club confirmed that it is a 1912 or 1913 Hupmobile[8]  Both the Ford and the Hupmobile[9] would have been inexpensive cars.

Houston Light Guards, circa 1900[10]: The Light Guards formed in 1873 as an early militia group.  Their original Romanesque armory was built at Texas Avenue and Fannin Street in 1893.  It was sold in 1925 and the Light Guard built a new Art Deco home on Caroline Street[11].  The second building[12] now houses the Buffalo Soldiers Museum[13].

Light GuardsHermann Estate office and staff, circa 1910-1920[14]: We think this was at the Stewart Building office (1906-1973) at Fannin and Preston. According to the Bayou City History blog (2012 June 5), it was the first reinforced concrete building in the city[15].
The clock above the rolltop desk advertises “G.A. Pfeiffle[?] Watch Inspector, S.S.&S. Ry, Greenville,Tex.” This would have been the Sherman, Shreveport, and Southern Railway, which had its offices in Greenville and was sold to the MKT in 1901[16].  Apparently the Estate staff frugally bought secondhand clocks.

Estate officeMcKinney between Main and Travis, circa 1920[17]: The church at left is the 1896 Romanesque home of the First Presbyterian Church. This building burned in 1932[18]. It was near the old Carnegie library at Main and Fannin[19].

McKinneyMain at Commerce, circa 1900[20]: The Chimene Furniture Company, visible in the distance, was located at 210 Main Street. The building that housed it was demolished and replaced in 1904 by a new office building[21]. Other businesses include a dry good shop advertising books, stationary, and clothing; a book exchange, and something called the Racket Store, which seems to have been a type of dry goods or general store.

Main at CommerceThere is very little left now[22]:

Main at Commerce 2014210 Main may be the building that replaced Chimene’s[23].

210 Main 2014 02The building across the street with the conical tower, though, is still there[24]:

210 Main 2014 03 conical towerSources consulted:

[1] McGovern Research Center Hermann History photo collection, folder 24.

[2] University of Houston Library digital image collection, Historic Houston Photographs.

[3] Chicago rail fan.com, Houston.

[4] Houston Business Journal, Betty T. Chapman, January 14, 2011, “Grand Central Station: The place where ’17 railroads meet the sea'”.

[5] McGovern Research Center, Institutional Collection 022, Baptist/Memorial, World War I nursing scrapbook.

[6] Hubcap Cafe.com, Ford.

[7] LaFierre Classic Cars, 1911 Hupmobile 20.

[8] Hupmobile Club.

[9] Wikipedia: Hupmobile.

[10] McGovern Research Center Hermann History photo collection, folder 24.

[11] Handbook of Texas Online: Houston Light Guards.

[12] OffCite.org, Jesse Hager, March 26, 2009, “A Building Worth Saving“.

[13] Buffalo Soldiers National Museum.

[14] McGovern Research Center Hermann History photo collection, folder 18.

[15] Bayou City History Blog, June 5, 2012, “Photos show the heyday and end of the Stewart Building“.

[16] Handbook of Texas Online: Sherman, Shreveport, and Southern Railway.

[17] McGovern Research Center Hermann History photo collection, folder 25.

[18] First Presbyterian Church, Houston, Our Story.

[19] Wikipedia: Houston Public Library.

[20] McGovern Research Center Hermann History photo collection, folder 24.

[21] Galveston Daily News, October 12, 1904, “Houston News” section.  Found on MyHeritage.com.

[22], [23], [24] Google Maps.

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Centennial: Photo Display, Part I

Alethea Drexler
archives assistant

Let the Centennial celebration begin!

We have a new display in the Library lobby of photographs of Houston in the early twentieth century.  Most of them are not directly related to medicine; there are a few of George Hermann and of some of the early hospitals, but the rest are simply street scenes, other buildings, and people.  Daily life in Houston a hundred years ago.  Since some of our readers don’t live nearby and won’t be stopping in to see them in person, I’ll share them here, with extended captions.

George Hermann (1843-1914)[1] with little May Ewing[2], daughter of Hermann Estate trustee T.J. Ewing, circa 1913.  Hermann lived with the Ewing family the last years of his life.  Ewing and the other trustees would later be accused of misusing the Estate’s funds[3].

Hermann and May EwingGeorge Hermann’s funeral, 1914[4]: This picture, taken on Texas Avenue at Main Street, shows the crowds that came out to see the hearse on its way to Glenwood Cemetery. Just visible behind the hearse is the rump of Hermann’s favorite horse, Leo[5], with boots reversed in the stirrups and part of a sign that appears to read “MY MASTER”.

The mix of transportation here is interesting: Cars, horse-drawn buggies and wagons, a bicycle, and a streetcar. The horses pulling the old-fashioned carved hearse are wearing knotted-string fly nets. The building in the background, its exterior covered in advertising, is the “New Dreamland Theater”.

Hermann funeralHermann Park dedication, 1914[6]: Hermann gave the city of Houston 285 acres for the creation of a park, in May 1914[7].

Park dedicaitonThe Baker Estate[8] with Hermann Hospital and Hermann Park in the background, circa 1925.  This photograph is at least ten years later than the rest of our display, but we included it to show how forested and undeveloped this part of the city still was. Hermann Hospital is the large, light-colored, building in the upper left.

The James Baker estate would later become the first home of M.D. Anderson Cancer Center[9].

Baker EstateFirst Evangelical Lutheran Church, circa 1910[10]: Since everyone got so involved in identifying it, we included the church from our September 30 and October 1 blog posts.

LutheranBlair Sanitarium, circa 1915[11]: Also making a repeat appearance is John M. Blair, M.D.’s private hospital, which appeared in its own post on June 3, 2011.

Blair was the president of the Houston Academy of Medicine in 1915 and served at some point as the editor of the journal Southwestern Medicine.

This would now be 1212 Rothwell, midway between White Oak Bayou and the St. Arnold’s Brewery. The building in the distance with the arch over the doorway is 1302 Nance Street (at Richey Street) and houses the restaurant Oxheart.

BlairA screen capture from Google Maps[12] shows us what this block looks like now:

1212 blair nowThe building on the right appears to be what remains of the Brooklyn Hotel[13] (one of several names under which it operated over the years).

Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company [14] circa 1905.  Gilman & Company was founded in New York in the 1850’s and began importing and distributing tea and coffee in 1859. It changed its name to the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company in honor of the 1869 completion of the Transcontinental Railway. It began selling a wider variety of food items in the 1880’s, making it the nation’s first grocery-store chain. Acting as both wholesaler and retailer, it was known for low prices, and by 1915, the company operated 1,600 stores nationwide, plus a mail-order branch. It survives today as A&P[15].

This beautiful Renaissance Revival building was located at 517 Main[17]; the name of the Tea Company can just barely be seen above the entrance. The photo was probably taken just after the turn of the 20th century. Most of the vehicles on the street are horse-drawn wagons and coaches, but there is an automobile of extremely early design at the right.

The Binz Building was erected in 1895 and demolished in 1950.  George Hermann kept businesses offices there for awhile before the Stewart Building was built in 1906.

A and PHere is that block today.  Sigh. [18]

517 Main in 2014

Sources consulted:

[1] Handbook of Texas Online: George Henry Hermann.

[2] McGovern Research Center Hermann History photo collection, folder 8.

[3] Texas Monthly magazine, February 1986, page 175.

[4] McGovern Research Center photo collection.

[5] Examiner.com, July 23, 2011, Marie Brannon, “The Funeral of George H. Hermann“.

[6] McGovern Research Center Hermann History photo collection, folder 16.

[7] Hermann Park Conservancy, History.

[8] McGovern Research Center P-3312 (oversized).

[9] M.D. Anderson online, “Who was MD Anderson?“.

[10] McGovern Research Center Hermann History photo collection, folder 25.

[11] McGovern Research Center photo collection, Buildings, “B”.

[12] Google Maps

[13] Examiner.com, Marie Brannon, September 16, 2011, “A Fifth Ward Hotel That Wouldn’t Die“.

[14] McGovern Research Center Hermann History photo collection, folder 24.

[15] Wikipedia: The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company.

[16] The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company online, Our History.

[17] Galveston Daily News, Wednesday, August 2, 1905, page 7.  On Newspapers.com.

[18] Google maps.

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Posted in Archives, Centennial, Exhibits, Images

Winter morning glory

Folder 123.12 MS067

By Philip Montgomery

Head of the McGovern Historical Collections

Morning Glory

Morning Glory, woodblock print, Meiji Period (1868-1912), MS 67 , William Schull PhD papers, box 123, folder 12.

The Christmas season is here along with damp, grey skies. My to-do list is longer than usual, and my cure for holiday despair is eating sweets or spending money. First of all I am grateful I can do both, but neither one is a cure for what ails me. Since other people may also have the pre-Christmas blahs, I thought a little bit of sunny, glorious spring might chase the blues away and get me back into the holiday spirits. So here is a little present from the McGovern Historical Center to you.

This Meiji Period (1868-1912) color woodblock print is of a Japanese morning glory. The print is located in MS 67, The William J. Schull, PhD Papers, box 123, folder 12.

My good friend Izumi HIRANO did some research on this woodblock print.  Izumi is a doctoral candidate in archival science at Gakushuin University in Tokyo. She called upon some of her friends to answer questions about the print.

Izumi said, “First of all, the letters on the left-side show the variety of the flower.There is a rule for the elements that consist of the name, from the top, ①leaf color ②pattern on leaf ③quality and form of leaf ④color of flower and pattern on petal ⑤the way the flower blooms ⑥information on petal layers

“Thus,①青水晶 Ao-sui(or zui) shoo・・・leaf color
②斑入 Fuiri・・・・・・・・pattern on leaf
③菊水爪巻葉 Kikusui-tsumemaki-yoo・・quality and form of leaf
④照紺 Shookon(or Terikon)・・・color of flower
④髭交 Hige-majiri・・・・・・・・・・・pattern on petal
⑤鳥甲入 Torikoo-iri・・・・・・・・・・the way the flower blooms
⑥獅子牡丹 Shishi-botan・・・・・・・・・・information on petal layers

“When you read the long name from the top, that is the name of the variety. Everybody involved know the rule and how you call a particular feature of a flower, so one could guess what a particular morning glory look like by reading its name.”

Evidently, Japanese horticulturalists fell in love with the lowly morning glory just as the Dutch fell in love with the tulip. The Japanese gardeners raised the morning glory to an art form.

There is a little more to the story of this print including its relationship to the science of genetics and the hunt for this particular print. So enjoy. Have a happy holiday, and while you dream of sugar plum fairies, take a stroll through an imaginary garden filled with morning glories.

Posted in Archives, Manuscript Collection, Special Collections

Helen Holt, Houston Academy of Medicine Librarian

Sandra Yates
Archivist and Special Collections Librarian

In the course of my research for the Library Centennial, I met the first full-time librarian of the Houston Academy of Medicine today, and I have to say that it has been one of the more exciting days in the archive. Helen Holt began working at the Houston Academy of Medicine Library in 1927, soon after the library and Harris County Medical Society moved into the brand new Medical Arts Building. I can imagine her first few months were spent unpacking and getting the library into shape.

Framed photograph of Helen Holt Garrott with plaque that reads, "Mrs. Helen Holt Garrott, in Recognition of 30 Years of Devoted Services As Librarian, Houston Academy of Medicine, 1927 - 1957" [P-3355, Oversize, McGovern Historical Center]

Framed photograph of Helen Holt Garrott with plaque that reads, “Mrs. Helen Holt Garrott, in Recognition of 30 Years of Devoted Services As Librarian, Houston Academy of Medicine, 1927 – 1957″ [P-3355, Oversize, McGovern Historical Center]

By August 1927, Miss Holt was entering new book and journal titles into the accession log. The image below shows her first entries.

Page from the Houston Academy of Medicine library accession log. First entry by the new librarian, Helen Holt, on August 1927. [IC001, Accessions, HAM-TMC Library Collection, McGovern Historical Center]

Page from the Houston Academy of Medicine library accession log. First entry by the new librarian, Helen Holt, on August 1927. [IC001, Accessions, HAM-TMC Library Collection, McGovern Historical Center]

The Medical Arts Building broke ground in 1926, and it was part of the construction boom in Houston during the 1920s. Image below is the groundbreaking ceremony with leaders of the Harris County Medical Society.

Groundbreaking for the Medical Arts Building at Caroline and Walker in downtown Houston, TX. Caption reads: "Mrs. T. A. Dickson (center), President of the Ladies’ Auxiliary of the Harris County Medical Society, turned the first spade of earth for the site of the new $1,750,000 Medical Arts Building, Caroline Street and Walker Avenue, From left to right are: DR. John T. Moore, Vice President; Dr. E. H. Lancaster, Director; Dr. Ralph Cooley, Director; Dr. John Foster, Director; Dr. W. G. Priester, Vice President; Don Hall, Contractor; Dr. Munford W. Hoover, Director, and Dr. A. H. Flickwir, Secretary-Treasurer." [McGovern Historical Center, Framed Oversize]

Groundbreaking for the Medical Arts Building at Caroline and Walker in downtown Houston, TX. Caption reads: “Mrs. T. A. Dickson (center), President of the Ladies’ Auxiliary of the Harris County Medical Society, turned the first spade of earth for the site of the new $1,750,000 Medical Arts Building, Caroline Street and Walker Avenue, From left to right are: DR. John T. Moore, Vice President; Dr. E. H. Lancaster, Director; Dr. Ralph Cooley, Director; Dr. John Foster, Director; Dr. W. G. Priester, Vice President; Don Hall, Contractor; Dr. Munford W. Hoover, Director, and Dr. A. H. Flickwir, Secretary-Treasurer.” [McGovern Historical Center, Framed Oversize]

Here is the finished Medical Arts Building at Caroline Street and Walker Avenue. The Houston Academy of Medicine Library and Harris County Medical Society Meeting Room occupied half of the 16th Floor. The building was demolished around 1986.

Postcard of Medical Arts Building around the time it opened in 1926. The Houston Academy of Medicine Library and Harris County Medical Society Meeting Room took half of the 16th floor (top floor). The building was occupied by Harris County Medical Society and Houston Dental Society members. [IC091, hou43, Texas Health Facilities Postcard Collection, McGovern Historical Center]

Postcard of Medical Arts Building around the time it opened in 1926. The Houston Academy of Medicine Library and Harris County Medical Society Meeting Room took half of the 16th floor (top floor). The building was occupied by Harris County Medical Society and Houston Dental Society members. [IC091, hou43, Texas Health Facilities Postcard Collection, McGovern Historical Center]

Posted in Centennial, Harris County Medical Society, Hospitals

Hermann Hospital Radiology Department

by Sandra Yates, Archivist and Special Collections Librarian

The TMC Library will be celebrating its centennial next year, and I’ve been searching high and low for images to adorn the website. These may or may not help the website, but I found a couple of great 1953 images from Hermann Hospital. Radiology was one of many areas of instruction at this teaching hospital. These images were for the 1952 Annual Report, which is available to read below.

Radiology Department X-ray Technicians are trained by Dr. Luther M. Vaughn, 1953. From left to right: Dr. Luther M. Vaughn, Nancy Rogers, Suzi MacAllister, and Margaret Echols, playing the patient is Walter Sterling. [McGovern Historical Center, Gift of Dr. Luther M. Vaughn, Photo Files, Institutions and Organizations, Hermann Hospital Radiology Department, 1953]

Radiology Department X-ray Technicians are trained by Dr. Luther M. Vaughn, 1953. From left to right: Dr. Luther M. Vaughn, Nancy Rogers, Suzi MacAllister, and Margaret Echols, playing the patient is Walter Sterling. [McGovern Historical Center, Gift of Dr. Luther M. Vaughn, Photo Files, Institutions and Organizations, Hermann Hospital Radiology Department, 1953]

Examining X-ray photographs at Hermann Hospital, 1953. Seated at left is a resident from Iraq, Dr. Mohamed Aba Tabik (Dr. Mo), standing is Dr. Luther Vaughn, seated facing the light stand is Dr. William Owsley. [McGovern Historical Center, Gift of Dr. Luther M. Vaughn, Photo Files, Medical Equipment and Apparatus, Hermann Hospital X-ray equipment, 1953]

Examining X-ray photographs at Hermann Hospital, 1953. Seated at left is a resident from Iraq, Dr. Mohamed Aba Tabik (Dr. Mo), standing is Dr. Luther Vaughn, seated facing the light stand is Dr. William Owsley. [McGovern Historical Center, Gift of Dr. Luther M. Vaughn, Photo Files, Medical Equipment and Apparatus, Hermann Hospital X-ray equipment, 1953]

Hermann Hospital Annual Report for 1952. The report highlights that it has been a teaching hospital since 1925. [McGovern Historical Center, Reference File, Hermann Hospital]

Hermann Hospital Annual Report for 1952. The report highlights that it has been a teaching hospital since 1925. [McGovern Historical Center, Reference File, Hermann Hospital]

Hermann Hospital was established in 1925 as specified in George H. Hermann’s will. Built on the out-skirts of Houston on a little dirt road called Fannin, it began as a private community hospital to serve the indigent population of the city as well as educate local healthcare providers. As The Hermann Horizons magazine states 50 years later:

When it opened its doors in 1925 at the edge of town on then-unpaved Fannin Street, Hermann became the cornerstone of what later was to grow into the world famous medical complex, The Texas Medical Center.

In the early years, patients rode street cars to the end of the Fannin line, then followed an oyster-shell walk to the hospital entrance. A sparkling fountain in the open courtyard greeted patients entering through the ornate wrought-iron doors. In the lobby, gently whirring ceiling fans stirred the air. – The Hermann Horizons, vol.3 no.1, Sept 1976

Posted in Archives, Centennial, Hospitals, Medical Archives

Medical World News: Contact Sheets and Photo Shoots

by Sandra Yates
Archivist and Special Collections Librarian

I’ve been working with a media firm to find archival materials for a documentary about the history of cancer. They are specifically looking for images within our Medical World News Collection. This project has been a great opportunity for me to familiarize myself with this amazing photograph collection and all it has to offer. It consists of photographic prints and negatives. When I say negatives, I can also say outtakes. For a typical article a photographer might shoot about 6 rolls of film with 36 frames. From those 216 shots, only 2-3 images might be used in the published article. Does this mean the other 213 images are rubbish? Not at all! An editor has to make some tough decisions with limited space on the page, and many great images are omitted by no fault of their own.

Below is a contact sheet of the 1966 Lasker Awards banquet. Contact sheets (also known as proofs) are a great research tool because they allow you to view an entire roll of film on one sheet. Within the publishing and photographic process, they are essential for assessing the quality (sharpness, exposure, lighting, and composition) of each image in order to decide which frames should or shouldn’t be enlarged. Imagine that you’re a magazine editor, which images would you publish?

Contact Sheet from 1966 Lasker Awards. Individuals in the image include: Dr. Sidney Farber, Dr. Michael E. DeBakey, Mary Lasker, Dr. George E. Palade. Photographer, Mottke Weissman. [Medical World News Collection, McGovern Historical Center, IC077, Folder 21.9, negative# MW-250A-04]

Contact Sheet from 1966 Lasker Awards. Individuals in the image include: Dr. Sidney Farber, Dr. Michael E. DeBakey, Mary Lasker, Dr. George E. Palade. Photographer, Mottke Weissman.
[Medical World News Collection, McGovern Historical Center, IC077, Folder 21.9, negative# MW-250A-04]

In contrast, here is a roll of negative film on a lightbox of Dr. Sidney Farber working in his Boston Office in 1966. The small 35mm frames are more difficult to assess their quality. Can you pick one frame that should be a 8″ x 10″ print? If you can, hold on! We have 15 more rolls of film from this photo shoot that you need to go through before you can make your final decision.

Roll of 35mm film negative being viewed on a lightbox from the Dr. Sidney Farber feature in the November 25, 1966 issue of Medical World News. The photo shoot took place at Dr. Faber's offices in Boston on October 18, 1966, photographer Joe Baker. [Medical World News Collection, McGovern Historical Center, IC077, negative# MW-118A-11]

Roll of 35mm film negative being viewed on a lightbox from the Dr. Sidney Farber feature in the November 25, 1966 issue of Medical World News. The photo shoot took place at Dr. Farber’s offices in Boston on October 18, 1966, photographer Joe Baker.
[Medical World News Collection, McGovern Historical Center, IC077, negative# MW-118A-11]

The Lasker Awards is one of the most prestigious science awards programs in the world and has been held in New York since 1945. It was established by Albert and Mary Lasker to recognize major innovations and advancements in medicine, especially in the area of cancer research. The recipients of the 1966 Lasker Awards were:

  • Dr. Sidney Farber, who received the Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Research for his career-long work to control childhood leukemia.
  • George E. Palade, who received the Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research for redefining the structure and functions of cells.
  • Eunice Kennedy Shriver, who received the Lasker Award for Public Service in Health for championing legislation to improve care for the mentally retarded.
Posted in Archives, Institutional Collection, Medical World News