Next time, just give it one star on Goodreads

Alethea Drexler
archives assistant

Gina and I have been numbering the rare books so that they will be easier to reshelve when they’re moved to the new space on the first floor.

Yesterday afternoon, I pulled a volume of Wood’s Library of Standard Medical Authors (1883) off of the shelf in and saw this:

McGovern Woods Library 97 vol 2 front cover

My first thought was that I did not want to meet the insect that could do that, but then we realized it wasn’t insect damage.

That, friends, is a bullet hole.

(Insert Texas jokes here.)

Thankfully, there aren’t any bloodstains, but it did quite a number on the pages

McGovern Woods Library 97 vol 2 pages

The exit wound:

McGovern Woods Library 97 vol 2 page edges

There was collateral damage.   This is the back cover of next book in the set.

McGovern Woods Library 98 vol 1 back cover

Tagged with: ,
Posted in Artifacts, Rare Books, Uncategorized

Dr. Jared E. Clarke & the Library

Sandra Yates
Archivist and Special Collections Librarian

As the centennial year of the Texas Medical Center Library comes to a close, we at the McGovern Historical Center have found a fitting send off. In February 1974, Don Macon interviewed Dr. Jared E. Clarke for the Texas Medical Center Historical Resources Project. The goal of the project was to collection oral histories and other materials related to the founding and development of the Texas Medical Center. Dr. Clarke was a member of the Harris County Medical Society when it established the Houston Academy of Medicine and Library. In fact, Dr. Clarke was in charge of raising funds to maintain and house the library. This week, we digitized the video below from a 3/4″ U-matic tape, in which Dr. Clarke recounts his medical career in Houston, military service during WWI, and the beginnings of the Texas Medical Center Library. (Hint: Around 19:30, he really gets started about the library!)

Video Description
Dr. Jared E. Clarke interviewed by Don Macon. Produced for the Texas Medical Center Historical Resources Project.

Dr. Clarke discusses his personal family history and his interest in medicine due to physicians in his family. He discusses his education and noted that he knew Dr. Ernst W. Bertner at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston although he was two years behind him, graduating in 1913.

Dr. Clarke speaks of the hospital facilities in Houston after his return from World War I and the services of doctors prior to Texas Medical Center (TMC).

Dr. Clarke talked about the founding of the Houston Academy of Medicine and the beginning of the library now housed in the Jesse H. Jones Building.

Run time 33:29
Producer Texas Medical Center Library
Audio/Visual sound, color
Language English

Posted in Audiovisual, Centennial, Harris County Medical Society, Hospitals, Texas Medical Center Library

Voice of Bertner

Sandra Yates
Archivist and Special Collections Librarian

Portrait of Dr. E. W. Bertner. McGovern Historical Center.

Portrait of Dr. E. W. Bertner. McGovern Historical Center.


Bertner Avenue runs north and south through the heart of the Texas Medical Center. And at 1.4 miles long, it is one of the longer streets in the TMC. It starts in the north at Baylor College of Medicine and John Freeman Boulevard and ends in the south at West Road past the UTHealth Recreation Center Athletic Fields. This is no coincidence! The street is named after Dr. Ernst William Bertner, who was one of the most influential characters in the establishment and growth of the Texas Medical Center. As the first president of the TMC and first acting director of M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Dr. Bertner was the driving force behind the success of the grand concept of a medical center in Houston. He raised money, influenced member institutions to join the TMC, and, as you’ll soon hear, advocated for cancer research.

We recently found two phonograph records in the archive, which was very exciting. They are lacquer discs with an aluminum base measuring 12-inch and 16-inch in diameter. According to the Preservation Self-Assessment Program (PSAP) website at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, these types of dics were used from the late-1920s to 1970s but mostly in the 1930 and 1940s. PSAP goes on to say:

Often found among early to mid-twentieth century broadcast collections, the radio transcription disc was a form of lacquer disc cut for use at a later broadcast time. They were often used to record radio programs and field recordings as well as for office and home dictation.

Label for the phonograph record of Passing in Review. [E. W. Bertner, MD papers, MS002, McGovern Historical Center]

Label for the phonograph record of Passing in Review. [E. W. Bertner, MD papers, MS002, McGovern Historical Center]


These items were digitized around 2005, and it is great to hear the voice of Dr. Bertner. I think it sounds like a cross between President Lyndon B. Johnson and 1992 presidential candidate, Ross Perot. What do you think?

Passing in Review, M. D. Anderson Hospital Blood Bank, 1946

“Passing in Review” is a radio program that aired on KPRC radio in Houston, Texas. First half of this episode provides a narrative of the process of donating blood to the M. D. Anderson Hospital Blood Bank. The second half of the episode has Dr. E. W. Bertner – acting director of M. D. Anderson Hospital – and first president of the Texas Medical Center – advocates for donating blood and cancer research. [E. W. Bertner, MD papers, MS002, Texas Medical Center Library, McGovern Historical Center]

Dr. E. W. Bertner Addresses the 4th Symposium of Cancer Research, 1950

Dr. E. W. Bertner Addresses the 4th Symposium of Cancer Research. Dr. Bertner is the guest of honor for M. D. Anderson Hospital 4th Symposium of Cancer Research in 1950. He addressed the meeting remotely from his residence in the Rice Hotel, Houston, Texas. Dr. Bertner died of cancer in July of 1950.[E. W. Bertner, MD papers, MS002, Texas Medical Center Library, McGovern Historical Center]


Dr. Bertner looking at plans with Texas Children's Foundation trustees, c. 1948. Hermann Hospital in the background. [E. W. Bertner, MS002, McGovern Historical Center]

Dr. Bertner looking at plans with Texas Children’s Foundation trustees, c. 1948. Hermann Hospital in the background. [E. W. Bertner, MS002, McGovern Historical Center]

Posted in Archives, Audiovisual, Manuscript Collection, TMC Streets

Centennial Photo Display: 1970’s, Part III

Alethea Drexler
archives assistant

Everybody sing!  “Don’t know why there’s no sun up in the sky . . . stormy weather . . .

Life in the Medical Center wasn’t all macramé room dividers and bright green armchairs in the 1970’s: There was rain.  A lot of rain.

The Library addition was barely dry behind the ears before it got soaked.

On June 15, 1976, the Medical Center area received over ten inches of rain in just about six hours.
[Weather Research Center]
[USGS]
[South Belt Houston Digital Archive]

P-3082 . . . and these are the cars that were fortunate enough to be parked in surface lots, not in underground garages.

P-3082 1976 flood 400dpi JPGP-3074 The ones in underground garages stayed there until the water was pumped out.

P-3074 1976 flood underground garage 400dpi jpgThe Medical Center computer system was left in ruins.  These are magnetic data storage tapes (P-3074).

P-3074 1976 flood computer tapes 400dpi JPGPhotos of the flood’s aftermath include a lot of these Control Data Cyber 18-30 minicomputers (P-3074).  That’s a lot of ruined paperwork, too.

P-3074 1976 flood computers b 400dpi JPGP-3063 Library staff and volunteers had to bucket-brigade materials out of the street level.

P-3063 street level book brigade 150dpi JPGThen, it happened all over again.

Tropical Storm Claudette blew through in 1979, breaking window and spraying debris all over those happy green chairs.  (John P. McGovern Historical Collections photo files, Institutions)

1979-library-interior-flood-b. . . and swamping a new generation of cars.  The light-colored roof on the left turned out to belong to a brand-new Chrysler.

1979-library-exterior-flood-b

Posted in Uncategorized

Centennial Photo Display: 1970’s, Part II

Alethea Drexler
archives assistant

The Library built a major addition to the original 1954 building in 1974.

P-2952, the addition behind the preexisting Library, soon after it opened.

P-2908a Library addition 400dpi JPGiP-2592 the unfinished first floor.  The stairway at right leads down to the street level where the computer lab, classrooms, vending machine cubby, and some of the offices are now.

P-2952 Library addition first floor 400dpi JPGThe exterior.  (McGovern Historical Collections photo files; Institutions)

1974-library-exterior-construction-additionThe addition was outfitted with new furniture.  I think we still have some of those desks.  I wish we still had some of those awesome chairs!  (McGovern Historical Collections photo files; Institutions)

1975-library-interior-construction-techservices-redchairP-3063 The 1970’s were big into mushroom decor–my mother had tan Pyrex mixing bowls with little mushrooms printed on them–and the Library was no exception.  The last of these literal toadstools resides in the archival collections.

P-3063 TMC Library 1976 mushroom stools 400dpi JPGP-3063 This abstract scenic divider hung in the lobby in front of the circulation desk.  The archives staff was overjoyed to discover that we had a color photograph of it–black and white simply does not do it justice.

The look would not be complete, of course, without harvest gold chairs.

P-3063 TMC Library scenic curtain 1970s 01 400dpi JPGThe leisure reading area was decked out in a cheerful acid green, with modern wall art.  (McGovern Historical Collections photo files; Institutions)

1976-library-interior-leisurereading 3000 editLibrarian Beth White working at what might be a dumb terminal (notice the phone receiver resting on the top).  More on dumb terminals in a moment.

White worked for the library for 37 years and was a driving force behind the establishment of the archival collections.

Librarian Elizabeth White in 1976.

Librarian Elizabeth White in 1976.

Texas Instruments Silent 700 dumb terminal.  A dumb terminal is a component that allows access to a computer but does not have its own processing capability.  When I was in high school–I’m dating myself–our library catalog was accessed by dumb terminals that were connected to a “real” computer located elsewhere in the school library.  (The whole system was slow.  The “good” catalog was still the card catalog.)  They’re basically a keyboard and a screen.  The TI Silent 700, so named because it was a dot matrix that printed relatively quietly, came out in this form in 1971 and had a thermal paper output instead of a monitor.  It had a modem and accessed remote computers via, yes, a telephone.  Enjoy the image of it plugged into a bona fide rotary phone. (McGovern Historical Collections photo files; Institutions)

1978-library-equipment-TI-Silent-700-hardcopy-terminal 5000Wikipedia: TI Silent 700
Computer History Museum: TI Silent 700
Texas Instruments: TI Silent 700

Posted in Uncategorized

Centennial Photo Display: 1970’s, Part I

Alethea Drexler
Archives assistant

Aerial view, 1973.  The Library, center, is preparing to receive its addition.   The forward-facing “wings” were added to Hermann Hospital (lower left) a year or so earlier.

1970s-HRC-PC-Building-TMC 1970s-aerial-views-150

John P. McGovern Historical Collection Photo Files, aerials

P-815 San Jacinto Lung Association mobile respiratory disease screening unit, 1973.  This is an early-1960’s GMC school-type bus converted to house x-ray equipment.

P-815 San Jac Lung Assoc 1960s mobile TB screening 600dpi JPGP-3069 Methodist Hospital’s early blood donation van, a 1973 Dodge Concord RV.

P-3069 Methodist blood van 1970s 400dpi JPGP-2941 Ben Taub General Hospital in 1976.

P-2941 Ben Taub 1976 400dpi JPGP-3000 Ben Taub’s emergency department, with pink scrubs and a nurse in a frilly cap.

P-3000 Ben Taub ER 1975 pink scrubs 400dpi JPGP-3016 Cardiologists Denton Cooley and John C. Norman with a model of a heart.

Denton Cooley and John Norman established the Texas Heart Institute’s Cullen Cardiovascular Research Laboratory in 1972 to research and develop devices for cardiac assist and replacement. Dr. Norman (1930 – 2014) was its first director. He also taught at both the University of Texas at Houston and at UT San Antonio. He was editor-in-chief at the inception of Cardiovascular Diseases: Bulletin of the Texas Medical Center in 1974; it still publishes as the Texas Heart Institute Journal.

P-3016 Cooley John C Norman and heart model 400dpi JPG[1]Dr. Norman’s obituary, written by Dr. Cooley.
[2] Texas Heart Institute – Denton Cooley

P-3340 Cardiopulmonary bypass machine in use at the Texas Heart Institute in 1972.
This is the machine that maintains circulation and oxygenation during heart surgery.  The first bypass prototype was built, astonishingly, in 1885, but practical machines were not developed until the early 1950’s.

P-3340 blood bypass 400dpi JPG[1] Historical perspectives in cardiology.
[2] Texas Heart Institute.
[3] National Library of Medicine

In August 1976, Hermann Hospital and Dr. James “Red” Duke debuted LifeFlight, the country’s second civilian helicopter medical transport.  The first was Denver, Colorado’s, Flight For Life, which was established in 1972 to facilitate rescues from difficult-to-access areas of the Rocky Mountains.
The first helicopter, pictured here at LifeFlight’s inauguration ceremony, was a French-built Aérospatiale Alouette III/SA 319B.  Memorial Hermann has used several models since then and currently operates a fleet of six Airbus EC 145’s.

Institutional Collection 086, Hermann Hospital archives, 35mm slide.

Photofiles LifeFlight 9 4inches 4000dpi JPG[1] LifeFlight on Wikipedia
[2] Memorial Hermann LifeFlight
[3] Flight for Life Colorado, history

Posted in Uncategorized

Centennial Photo Display: 1960’s, Part III

Alethea Drexler
archives assistant

We had room in the case so we went back and added a few more.

Two more Joseph Schwarting illustrations.  The girl with the umbrella is particularly charming:

IC094 Schwarting HeartBull 19640102 umbrella 600dpi JPG edit

“Girl with red umbrella”, Heart Bulletin, January-February 1964. IC 094 John P. McGovern Historical Collections

Hemodialysis at St. Luke's, mid-1960's.  P-3343 John P. McGovern Historical Collections

“Cervical cancer control”, Cancer Bulletin, November-December 1963, IC 094 John P. McGovern Historical Collections

The machine at right in the image below appears to be a Travenol-type artificial kidney.  Hemodilaysis machines were invented in the Netherlands in the late 1930’s but weren’t produced commercially until the mid-1950’s. They were originally used to treat acute cases such as mismatched blood transfusions and overdoses, but by the 1960’s had gained acceptance for use in long-term renal disease patients.

P-3343 St Lukes dialysis 1960s 600dpi JPG

Hemodialysis at St. Luke’s, mid-1960’s. P-3343 John P. McGovern Historical Collections

Dittrick Medical History Center, Case Western Reserve University: Travenol artificial kidney.  (I would encourage readers to check out the Dittrick’s website; they have a lot of interesting items.)

Tagged with:
Posted in Centennial, Exhibits, Images, Medical Archives

Centennial Photo Display: 1960’s, Part II

Alethea Drexler
archives assistant

Last month’s image exhibit talked a little bit about the high rate of poliomyelitis in the Houston area during the 1940’s and 1950’s, and some of the institutions that sought to treat and rehabilitate its victims.

The following series is from the Victory Over Polio campaign, which set out to mass-vaccinate Harris county residents in July 1962.  It was sponsored by the Junior Chamber of Commerce [Jaycees] and the Harris County Medical Society.

All of these are from Institutional Collection 004, the Harris County Medical Society, box 1 of the “Victory Over Polio” series.

Vaccination stations were set up at area schools.

Vaccination stations were set up at area schools.

IC004 HCMS polio box 1 07 Sabin sobbing JPG

Somebody at Lewis & Coker grocery was a comedian.

IC004 HCMS polio box 1 06 Weingarten JPG

Public service announcement at Weingarten’s grocery.

IC004 HCMS polio box 1 05 JPG

The little girl in the foreground seems to be thrilled that her vaccination comes in the form of a sugar cube and not a shot.

IC004 HCMS polio box 1 04 Colt 45 JPT

Members of the new Colt 45’s baseball team turned out to encourage trepidatious youngsters.

IC004 HCMS Polio box 1 01 JPG

These two are wrapped up in an early computer printout. The chalkboard in the background seems to be running figures on vaccination rates.

The money that was collected for the Victory campaign eventually formed the basis for the funding of the Health Museum, which began as an exhibit in the Museum of Natural Science.

Works consulted:
[1] Museum of Health and Medical Science.
[2] The Untold Museum District, Part III
[3] Harris County Medical Society newsletter, 2014 January 09.
[4] the Bellaire Texan [newspaper], July 18, 1962, on Portal to Texas History online.
[5] Texas Medical Center News online, July 2015.|
[6] Getty Images newsreel, 1962.
[7] Gonzales, J.R., Bayou City History blog at the Houston Chronicle, 2015 February 23.

Tagged with: , ,
Posted in Uncategorized

Centennial Photo Display: 1960’s, Part I

Alethea Drexler
archives assistant

July’s photo exhibit had to be trimmed down, but don’t worry–it’s for a good cause.  We need the display space for a traveling exhibit.  More on that later.

Among the landmark events in the 1960’s:

  • The Friends of the Texas Medical Center Library was founded in 1960[1] and continues to provide support for Library resources.
  • Ben Taub General Hospital opened in 1963[2]. The Harris County Hospital District was created in 1965[3].
    Ben Taub hospital in the early 1960's.

    Ben Taub hospital in the early 1960’s.

    Ben Taub Hospital emergency room, 1960's.

    Ben Taub Hospital emergency room, 1960’s.

  • MEDLINE, the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, was implemented in 1964 by the National Library of Medicine as MEDLARS[6] (not online, of course). It was the first large-scale, computer-based, retrospective search service available to the public.
    The Medical Center's IBM 7904 mainframe computer system, circa 1969.

    The Medical Center’s IBM 7904 mainframe computer system, circa 1969.

    The appliance in the foreground is an IBM 716 printer, marketed between the mid-1950's and 1969.

    The appliance in the foreground is an IBM 716 printer, marketed between the mid-1950’s and 1969.

  • In 1969, Denton Cooley implanted the first artificial heart. The Liotta-Cooley Artificial Heart is now on display at the Smithsonian Institution.   The films of the surgery are held by the McGovern Collections.

Archives staffer Kiersten Bryant selected some of her favorite 1960’s Joseph Schwarting illustrations:

“Man on phone”, Heart Bulletin, March-April 1964

“Peripheral auscultation: Prospecting with a stethoscope” Cancer Bulletin, September-October 1963

“The Pill and Cancer” Cancer Bulletin, January-February 1968.

“Recent advances in the diagnosis of cancer” Cancer Bulletin, March-April 1965.

Sources consulted:

[1] Friends of the Texas Medical Center Library
[2] Ben Taub General Hospital: Harris Health System
[3] Harris Health System, Wikipedia.
[4] Handbook of Texas Online: Ben Taub (1889-1982)
[5] Texas Medical Center timeline: 1960’s
[6] MEDLARS, National Library of Medicine
[7] Institutional collection 94 Medical Arts Publishing Foundation
[8] IBM

Tagged with:
Posted in Archives, Images

Centennial Photo Display: 1950’s, Part II

The Heart Bulletin was published by the Medical Arts Publishing Foundation in Houston from 1952 to 1971. The back cover of every issue featured cartoons of red arteries and blue veins that playfully illustrate the principles of cardiovascular medicine. Each illustration has a quote about cardiovascular theory from notable philosopher or physician.

Joseph Schwarting, once the only fine arts major on the University of Texas football team, was the lead artist for Medical Arts Publishing Foundation, which was noted for using original art for each graphic in every journal. The company also published The Cancer Bulletin and The Psychiatric Bulletin.

The Texas Medical Center Library’s John P. McGovern Historical Center houses the original artwork for all the publication of the Medical Arts Publishing Foundation. Below are some of the original artwork for the Artery & Vein characters.

Heart Bulletin, May-June 1954

Heart Bulletin, May-June 1954

Heart Bulletin, January-February 1953

Heart Bulletin, January-February 1953

Heart Bulletin, November-December 1952

Heart Bulletin, November-December 1952

Heart Bulletin, May-June 1952

Heart Bulletin, May-June 1952

Heart Bulletin, July-August 1952

Heart Bulletin, July-August 1952

Texas Medical Center Library, John P. McGovern Historical Research Center: http://library.tmc.edu/mcgovern/collections/heart-bulletin/

LIFE magazine, November 17, 1941, page 115.

“Building 203”

P-3305-01 UTMDA radioisotope lab 1950s 600dpi JPG        The Houston Veterans Administration Hospital moved its new radioisotope laboratory—nicknamed the “Atomic Lab”–into this converted Navy barracks in 1952. Its eight thousand square feet included eight laboratories, a cold room, culture transfer and media preparation rooms, a constant-temperature instrument room, sterilization room, the latest in housing for laboratory animals, and an animal operating room.

Medicine began to use radioisotopes in the late 1930’s as tracers in investigation and diagnostics, and to administer radiation as therapy for cancers and thyroid disease.

Dr. Michael DeBakey conducted some of his early vascular surgery research in Building 203. The first Dacron graft surgery was performed at the Houston Veterans Hospital in September 1954.

The vehicle parked out front is a fourth-generation (1947-1955) Chevrolet Suburban. It has a single taillight in the middle of the rear hatch.

P-3306-03 Veterans Administration Hospital radioisotope laboratory, 1950's

P-3306-03 Veterans Administration Hospital radioisotope laboratory, 1950’s

“The men are being trained in how to calibrate a GM (Geiger Mueller, geiger counter). In a calibration, you relate the meter readout to the actual exposure rate in mR[milliroentgens]/hr. The actual exposure rates are indicated on the floor and have been calculated based on the distance from the source and the known activity of the source.  The source is the small metal capsule hanging from a string in the center of the concentric circles on the floor. It is towards the lower right corner of the photo. The source is the same height above the floor as the center of the GM tubes. The latter are the vertical cylinders clipped to the front of the bottom portion of the meter case. Notice that these tubes are aligned up on the concentric circles.

Not sure what units the meters are reading out in, but it is likely to be mR/hour.   If the meter is not reading accurately, it is adjusted. That is being done by turning a small potentiometer with a screwdriver. To access the “pots”, the survey meter case has to be opened up. The electronics (including the adjustable pots) are attached to the top of the meter which has the carrying handle and the meter display.”

Paul Frame
Oak Ridge Associated Universities
ORAU Foundation historical collections
Oak Ridge, Tennessee

P-3305-01, photo of radioisotope laboratory building, Houston Veterans Hospital, ca. 1952; John P. McGovern Historical Collections and Research Center; Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library; Houston, Texas.

Black, Homer S., Ph.D., and Glenn R. Cunningham, Ph.D., “A brief history of the Houston Veterans Hospital and its research program, 1949-2003”. http://www.houston.va.gov/about/History_of_Research_Program.asp

American Nuclear Society, “Medical Use of Radioisotopes”; http://www.nuclearconnect.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Medical_Use_of_Radioisotopes_web.pdf

Kahn, Jeffrey, “From radioisotopes to medical imaging, history of nuclear medicine written at Berkeley,” http://www2.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/nuclear-med-history.html.

Arabia Temple Crippled Children’s Clinic

This series of images is of the Arabia Temple Crippled Children’s Clinic. The Clinic was founded in 1920 and operated in space provided by Hermann Hospital during the 1940’s. The building seen here, constructed on Hermann land, opened in 1952. It joined the nonprofit Shriners Hospitals for Children in 1966 and continues to operate as a Medical Center member institution.

The Houston branch treats cleft palate and orthopedic concerns.   Shriners Hospital, Galveston, opened in 1966 and specializes in burn care.

P-2536 Arabia Temple Crippled Childrens Clinic

P-2536 Arabia Temple Crippled Childrens Clinic

This series also constitutes our Tour of Elaborate Wallpaper. Particularly notable are the cherubs in the nursery (which may have been painted) and the Plymouth Rock scene in the lunch room.

P-2537-07 Arabia Temple Crippled Children's Clinic, classroom

P-2537-07 Arabia Temple Crippled Children’s Clinic, classroom

P-2537-06 Arabia Temple Crippled Children's Clinic, nurses' station

P-2537-06 Arabia Temple Crippled Children’s Clinic, nurses’ station

P-2537-05 Arabia Temple Crippled Children's Clinic, patients' room

P-2537-05 Arabia Temple Crippled Children’s Clinic, patients’ room

P-2537-04 Arabia Temple Crippled Children's Clinic, patients' room.

P-2537-04 Arabia Temple Crippled Children’s Clinic, patients’ room.

P-2537-03 Arabia Temple Crippled Children's Clinic, lunch time

P-2537-03 Arabia Temple Crippled Children’s Clinic, lunch time

P-2537-02 Arabia Temple Crippled Children's Clinic, aquatic therapy pool

P-2537-02 Arabia Temple Crippled Children’s Clinic, aquatic therapy pool

P-2537-01 Arabia Temple Crippled Children's Clinic, nursery

P-2537-01 Arabia Temple Crippled Children’s Clinic, nursery

P-2536, Arabia Temple Crippled Children’s Clinic exterior view; John P. McGovern Historical Collections and Research Center; Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library; Houston, Texas.

P-2537, Arabia Temple Crippled Children’s Clinic series of interior views; John P. McGovern Historical Collections and Research Center; Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library; Houston, Texas.

Handbook of Texas Online – Hermann Hospital: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/sbh06

Handbook of Texas Online – Texas Medical Center: https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/kct23

Wikipedia – Shriners Hospital for Children (Galveston): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shriners_Hospital_for_Children_%28Galveston%29

Wikipedia – Shriners Hospital for Children (Houston):

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shriners_Hospital_for_Children_%28Houston%29

Shriners Hospital for Children (Houston): http://www.shrinershospitalsforchildren.org/Locations/houston

Tagged with: ,
Posted in Centennial